Thursday, September 22, 2022

What Is The Weight Management And Obesity

 Fundamentals of Nutrition, Calorie Balance, and Body Weight. -

         Weight management and obesity prevention are two of the hottest topics in health and nutrition today. Clinicians from virtually every medical field seek information on these topics, in part, because of the vast number of patients who have an abnormal or undesirable weight status. This chapter will provide an overview of calorie balance and the macronutrients that contribute to energy intake.

waight loss

  Calorie Balance -

         Body weight is primarily determined by a simple concept known as energy balance. Energy balance is the ratio of energy ingested through foods and beverages to the energy expended through basal metabolism, the therms effect of food, and physical activity.

         The energy discussed in nutrition and weight management is measured in kilocalories (kcal). One kcal is defined as the amount of heat, or energy, necessary to raise 1 kg of water by 1 °C. Although the scientifically correct term for this energy is kcal, most consumer-facing and educational resources refer to this energy as simply calories. 

Energy ingested -

         Energy or calories, ingested by human beings comes from four macronu­trients: carbohydrate, fat, protein, and alcohol. Based on its corresponding chemical structure, each of these macronutrients will provide a particular level of energy, or calories, per gram ingested. Carbohydrates and protein are the least energy-dense, of the macro­nutrients, providing ~4 kcal/g. Alcohol provides 7 kcal/g. Fat is the most energy-dense, providing ~9 kcal/g. The caloric content of foods and beverages is based on the grams of carbohydrates, fat, protein, and alcohol in the associated product. For example, if a food’s nutrition facts label states that it has 25 g of carbohydrate (CHO), 1 g of fat (FAT), 1 g of protein (PRO), and no alcohol per single serving, then one serving of that food should have ~113 kcal (although, due to the rounding off some of these num­ber, the label may state that the caloric content is slightly higher or lower than this number). Performed in the examples above may be slightly different from the numbers appearing on the label itself. In addition, the labeling rules for alcohol-containing products are different from nonalcoholic products; therefore, traditional nutrition facts labels may not be available on all alcohol-containing products.



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